Starling’s equation

What are the 4 Starling forces?

The four Starlings forces are: hydrostatic pressure in the capillary (Pc) hydrostatic pressure in the interstitium (Pi) oncotic pressure in the capillary (pc )

What increases capillary filtration rate?

Mechanisms of enhanced transcapillary filtration in response to elevations in arterial or venous pressure. Elevations in arterial (Pa) or venous (Pv) pressure increase capillary pressure, which favors enhanced capillary filtration (Jv).

Which of the Starling forces are reabsorption forces?

Near the arteriolar side of the microcirculation, starling forces result in outward fluid filtration whereas toward the venous side of the microcirculation starling forces result in fluid resorption. Importantly, the hydrostatic and oncotic pressures of the interstitial fluid largely remain constant.

How do you calculate capillary hydrostatic pressure?

Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure (PC ) The average capillary hydrostatic pressure is determined by arterial and venous pressures (PA and PV), and by the ratio of post-to-precapillary resistances (RV/RA).

What is the equation for net filtration pressure?

Or: NFP = 55 – [15 + 30] = 10 mm Hg (Figure 25.4. 1). Figure 25.4. 1 – Net Filtration Pressure: The NFP is the sum of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures.

What is Net filtration pressure?

The net filtration pressure (NFP) represents the interaction of the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures, driving fluid out of the capillary. It is equal to the difference between the CHP and the BCOP. Because the BCOP remains steady at 25 mm Hg, water is drawn into the capillary, that is, reabsorption occurs.

What are the four causes of edema?

Several diseases and conditions may cause edema, including:Congestive heart failure. Cirrhosis. Kidney disease. Kidney damage. Weakness or damage to veins in your legs. Inadequate lymphatic system. Severe, long-term protein deficiency.

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What promotes edema?

Causes of Edema Edema may be caused by: Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure (as occurs when venous pressures become elevated by gravitational forces, volume expanded states, in heart failure or with venous obstruction) Decreased plasma oncotic pressure (as occurs with hypoproteinemia)

What is a capillary bed?

The capillary bed is an interwoven network of capillaries that supplies an organ. The more metabolically active the cells, the more capillaries required to supply nutrients and carry away waste products.

Which Starling forces favor filtration?


Term Arterial Blood PressureDefinition Blood pressure in the aorta
Term Which starling forces favor filtration?Definition Capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
Term FiltrationDefinition Fluid moves from blood to interstitial fluid

What is kidney hydrostatic pressure?

In the case of the kidney, hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by fluid on the capillary walls of the glomerulus or the walls of the Bowman’s capsule.

What is a resistance vessel?

A resistance artery is small diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that contributes significantly to the creation of the resistance to flow and regulation of blood flow. Resistance arteries are usually arterioles or end-points of arteries.

What increases hydrostatic pressure?

An increase in small artery, arteriolar, or venous pressure will increase the capillary hydrostatic pressure favoring filtration. A reduction of these pressures will have the opposite effect. Tissue pressure can change significantly if fluid moves into tissue space.

What is osmotic pressure of blood?

Oncotic pressure, or colloid osmotic pressure, is a form of osmotic pressure induced by proteins, notably albumin, in a blood vessel’s plasma (blood/liquid) that displaces water molecules, thus creating a relative water molecule deficit with water molecules moving back into the circulatory system within the lower

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