What Hamilton’s rule explained?
Price which has become known as Hamilton’s rule. According to Hamilton’s rule, kin selection causes genes to increase in frequency when the genetic relatedness of a recipient to an actor multiplied by the benefit to the recipient is greater than the reproductive cost to the actor.
What is Hamilton’s rule What are its three mathematical terms and how are they calculated?
What are its three mathematical terms, and how are they calculated? Hamilton’s rule states that an allele for altruistic behavior should spread if Br – C > 0. B is the benefit to the recipient, and C is the cost to the actor, both measured as number of surviving offspring.
How do you calculate inclusive fitness?
The answer comes when we consider an individual’s inclusive fitness, which is the sum of an individual’s direct fitness, the number of offspring produced, and indirect fitness, the number of relatives (nieces and nephews) produced multiplied by the degree of relatedness of those individuals.
How do you calculate relatedness?
First cousins, for instance, have two common ancestors, and the generation distance via each one is 4. Therefore their relatedness is 2 x (1/2)^4 = 1/8. If A is B’s great-grandchild, the generation distance is 3 and the number of common ‘ancestors’ is 1 (B himself), so the relatedness is 1 x (1/2)^3 = 1/8.
What does inclusive fitness mean?
noun Biology. the fitness of an individual organism as measured in terms of the survival and reproductive success of its kin, each relative being valued according to the probability of shared genetic information, an offspring or sibling having a value of 50 percent and a cousin 25 percent.
Is Kin selection natural selection?
Kin selection, a type of natural selection that considers the role relatives play when evaluating the genetic fitness of a given individual. Kin selection occurs when an animal engages in self-sacrificial behaviour that benefits the genetic fitness of its relatives.
What is the main tenant of inclusive fitness theory?
Inclusive fitness theory suggests that altruism among organisms who share a given percentage of genes enables those genes to be passed on to subsequent generations.
What is meant by kin selection?
a form of natural selection that favors altruistic behavior toward close relatives resulting in an increase in the altruistic individual’s genetic contribution to the next generation.
What does Hamilton’s rule RB c tell us quizlet?
FEEDBACK: The r in Hamilton’s rule (rb > c) equals the average coefficient of relatedness between individuals; b is the sum of fitness benefits of a certain behavior, and c equals the corresponding fitness cost. The coefficient of relatedness, r, measures the genetic relationship between interacting individuals.
What is an example of kin selection?
The honeybee and other social insects provide the clearest example of kin selection. They are also particularly interesting examples because of the peculiar genetic relationships among the family members. Male honeybees (drones) develop from the queen’s unfertilized eggs and are haploid.
What is an example of reciprocal altruism?
An example of reciprocal altruism is cleaning symbiosis, such as between cleaner fish and their hosts, though cleaners include shrimps and birds, and clients include fish, turtles, octopuses and mammals.
Which is an example of inclusive fitness?
The most obvious examples of increased inclusive fitness can be observed in the altruistic behaviors of parents. To ensure that their genes remain in the gene pool, organisms attempt to give rise to the maximum number of offspring that are sure to survive.
What is the difference between direct and indirect fitness?
individual survival and reproduction (direct fitness) and any impact that an individual has on the survival and reproduction of relatives (indirect fitness). Kin selection occurs when an animal engages in self-sacrificial behaviour that benefits the genetic fitness of its relatives.