#### Monod equation

## What is Ks in Monod equation?

K_{s} is the “half-velocity constant”—the value of S when μ/μ_{max} = 0.5.

## How is MU Max calculated?

μ = μ_{max} x (S/(K_{s} x S)). Maximum specific growth rate μ_{max} in time^{–}^{1}, concentration of substrate in solution S in mass/unit volume & half velocity constant K_{s} in mass/unit volume are the key elements of this calculation.

## What is specific growth rate?

The specific growth rate period is defined as the rate of increase of biomass of a cell population per unit of biomass concentration. In the sigmoid curve it occurs between the lag and stationary phases where cell growth follows a straight-line equation as follows: ln F m = S g t + ln I m.

## What is yield coefficient?

Cell mass and product formation by microorganisms can be described quantitatively by yield coefficients expressed as the mass of cells or product formed per unit mass of substrate consumed, Yx/, and Yp/, for cells and product, re- spectively.

## What are the 4 phases of bacterial growth?

It has been determined that in a closed system or batch culture (no food added, no wastes removed) bacteria will grow in a predictable pattern, resulting in a growth curve composed of four distinct phases of growth: the lag phase, the exponential or log phase, the stationary phase, and the death or decline phase.

## What is dilution rate?

The dilution rate is calculated by dividing the flow rate (how much media flows into the vessel per hour) by the culture volume. For example, using a volume of 300 ml a dilution rate of 0.1 means that 30 ml of media is added to the culture every hour.

## How do you calculate growth rate of microorganisms?

The rate of exponential growth of a bacterial culture is expressed as generation time, also the doubling time of the bacterial population. Generation time (G) is defined as the time (t) per generation (n = number of generations). Hence, G=t/n is the equation from which calculations of generation time (below) derive.

## What is maximum growth rate?

Biotic potenial is the maximum rate at which a population can grow. For instance, some bacteria have a biotic potential of 100% per hour; this means that at their maximum growth rate, their population doubles each hour.

## What is the unit of substrate feed rate?

12.11 Kinetics of Substrate Uptakein Cell Culture The specific rate of substrate uptake for maintenance activities is known as the maintenance coefficient, m_{S}. The dimensions of m_{S} are T^{−}^{1}; typical units are kg substrate (kg biomass)^{−}^{1} s^{−}^{1}.

## What are the phases of growth?

There are three phases of growth – meristematic, elongation and maturation.

## How do we calculate growth rate?

The formula used for the average growth rate over time method is to divide the present value by the past value, multiply to the 1/N power and then subtract one. “N” in this formula represents the number of years.

## What causes microbial growth?

Microbial growth is affected by temperature, water activity (relative humidity of the meat), pH, and the concentration of nutrients.

## What is a Chemostat used for?

The chemostat is often used to gather steady state data about an organism in order to generate a mathematical model relating to its metabolic processes. Chemostats are also used as microcosms in ecology and evolutionary biology.

## What is growth yield?

The yield (X) of a culture is the difference between the initial biomass (X_{}) and the maximum biomass at the end of the growth phase (X_{max}):