What are the 5 principles of the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?
The Hardy–Weinberg principle relies on a number of assumptions: (1) random mating (i.e, population structure is absent and matings occur in proportion to genotype frequencies), (2) the absence of natural selection, (3) a very large population size (i.e., genetic drift is negligible), (4) no gene flow or migration, (5)
What is P and Q in Hardy Weinberg?
This has become known as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation. In this equation (p² + 2pq + q² = 1), p is defined as the frequency of the dominant allele and q as the frequency of the recessive allele for a trait controlled by a pair of alleles (A and a).
How do you calculate P and Q?
To find q, simply take the square root of 0.09 to get 0.3. Since p = 1 – 0.3, then p must equal 0.7. 2pq = 2 (0.7 x 0.3) = 0.42 = 42% of the population are heterozygotes (carriers).
How do you find the equilibrium frequency?
Now solve for p and convince yourself that the equilibrium frequency = p = v/(u+v). Similarly the equilibrium frequency of q = u/(u+v). In the real world we will generally not find specific evolutionary forces acting alone; there will always be some other force that might counteract a specific force of interest.
Why is there a 2 in 2pq?
In the equation, p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype AA, q2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype aa, and 2pq represents the frequency of the heterozygous genotype Aa.
Does inbreeding violate Hardy Weinberg?
There is an equation used to predict the frequency of alleles in Hardy-Weinberg populations. That equation is called the Hardy-Weinberg equation. When inbreeding occurs, the amount of heterozygotes will decrease because the individuals that are mating have the same alleles.
What are the two Hardy Weinberg equations?
For a population in genetic equilibrium: p + q = 1.0 (The sum of the frequencies of both alleles is 100%.) This page contains all the information you need to calculate allelic frequencies when there are two different alleles.
What is Q 2 Hardy Weinberg?
When Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is met the following equation is true: p2 +2pq + q2 = 1. Where p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype, q2 represents the frequency of the recessive genotype and 2pq is the frequency of the heterozygous genotype.
What is Hardy Weinberg equilibrium used for?
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, also referred to as the Hardy-Weinberg principle, is used to compare allele frequencies in a given population over a period of time.
What does the Hardy Weinberg principle predict?
The Hardy-Weinberg principle predicts that allelic frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next, or remain in EQUILIBRIUM, if we assume certain conditions (which we will discuss below). No migration – so no alleles enter or leave the population. No mutation – so allelic characteristics do not change.