#### Fenske equation

## How is reflux ratio calculated?

Some of the liquid from the condenser at the top of the column, L_{c}, is returned as reflux. The reflux ratio is defined as the ratio of the liquid returned to the column divided by the liquid removed as product, i.e., R = L_{c}/D.

## How do you calculate the number of trays in a distillation column?

mole fraction in the liquid in the distillation flask. These values can be determined from the refractive in- dex. The relative volatility (separation ratio) α is 1.07 for a mixture of methyl cyclohexane and n-heptane. The number of theoretical trays can be calculated taking the logarithm of (6).

## How do you calculate relative volatility?

Relative volatility is therefore a measure of separability of A and B.Since xB = 1 – xA , we have:Replace with pA = yA PT ; pB = ( 1 – yA ) PT so as to express everything in MVC:When a = 1.0, no separation is possible: both component-A and component-B are equally volatile. They will vapourise together when heated.

## What is Kremser equation?

An equation used in the calculation of the number of theoretical stages required in the design of an absorption column used for absorption processes such as the drying of natural gas.

## What is the minimum reflux ratio?

The minimum reflux ratio Rm is the limiting reflux where the operating line either touches the equilibrium curve or intersects the equilibrium curve at the q-line. The minimum reflux ratio will require an infinite number of trays to attain the specified separation of xD and xB.

## What is a good reflux ratio?

approximately 1.2 to 1.5 times

## What happens when you increase reflux ratio?

The higher the reflux ratio, the more vapor/liquid contact can occur in the distillation column. So higher reflux ratios usually mean higher purity of the distillate. It also means that the collection rate for the distillate will be slower.

## How do you calculate minimum reflux?

The minimum reflux rate can be determined mathematically from the endpoints of the rectifying line at minimum reflux — the overhead product composition point (x_{D},x_{D}) and the point of intersection of the feed line and equilibrium curve (x’, y’).

## What is flooding in distillation column?

Flooding is a common abnormal process condition wherein the distillation column stops generating a separation, thus causing the quality of the top and/or bottom products to go off specification.

## How do you make a fractionating column?

You can make a fractionating column by inserting glass wool or some other inert filling (like silica gel) in a straight condenser, though make sure you don’t stuff it too dense, otherwise during the distillation you’ll flood the column.

## How is volatility measured?

Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Description: Volatility measures the risk of a security.

## What is Raoult’s Law used for?

Established by French chemist François-Marie Raoult in 1887, it states that the partial pressure of each component of an ideal mixture of liquids is equal to the vapour pressure of the pure component multiplied by its mole fraction in the mixture.