Anion gap equation

What is the anion gap calculation?

Calculation: Serum anion gap (AG)= Na+ – (Cl + HCO3) The anion gap (AG) is a measure of acid-base balance. Your body maintains balance by holding onto or releasing carbon dioxide through the lungs (acid) or bicarbonate through the kidneys (base).

What does anion gap tell you?

The anion gap blood test is used to show whether your blood has an imbalance of electrolytes or too much or not enough acid. Too much acid in the blood is called acidosis. If your blood does not have enough acid, you may have a condition called alkalosis.

What is the normal anion gap?

Results are given in milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Normal results are 3 to 10 mEq/L, although the normal level may vary from lab to lab. If your results are higher, it may mean that you have metabolic acidosis. Hypoalbuminemia means you have less albumin protein than normal.

What is a high anion gap?

An anion gap is usually considered to be high if it is over 12 mEq/L. High anion gap metabolic acidosis is typically caused by acid produced by the body. More rarely, it may be caused by ingesting methanol or overdosing on aspirin.

How do you fix anion gap?

Anion gap may be underesitmated in hypoalbuminaemia, because if albumin decreased by 1g/L then the anion gap decreases by 0.25 mmol.To overcome the effects of the hypoalbuminaemia on the AG, the corrected AG can be used which is AG + (0.25 X (40-albumin) expressed in g/L.

What are symptoms of low anion gap?

Symptoms of an electrolyte imbalance If your doctor suspects that you have an electrolyte imbalance in your blood, they’ll order an anion gap blood test. Symptoms may include: shortness of breath. nausea or vomiting.

What is considered a low anion gap?

An anion gap number between 3 and 10 is considered normal. But the “normal” range can vary from person to person, and it may also depend on the methods your lab used to do the test.

What is an anion?

What is an anion? An anion has more electrons than protons, consequently giving it a net negative charge. For an anion to form, one or more electrons must be gained, typically pulled away from other atoms with a weaker affinity for them.

What is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis?

The most common causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, renal tubular acidosis, drugs-induced hyperkalemia, early renal failure and administration of acids.

How is gap calculated?

Expressed in words, the equation is: Anion Gap = Sodium – (Chloride + Bicarbonate) which is logically equivalent to: Anion Gap = (the most prevalent cation) minus (the sum of the most prevalent anions)

Why does multiple myeloma cause low anion gap?

In addition to displacement of sodium-containing water from serum by large amounts of non-sodium-containing paraproteins, some paraproteins (eg, IgG in multiple myeloma) can have a net positive charge at physiological pH. This leads to an increase in unmeasured cations and a low anion gap7, 8).

Do you correct sodium for anion gap?

Should the corrected sodium be used for calculating the anion gap? No! The anion gap reflects the balance between positively and negatively charged electrolytes in the extracellular fluid.

What foods cause acidosis?

Diets high in salt, soda, and animal protein can cause acidosis. People can moderate their intake of these foods and increase their daily intake of fruits and vegetables.

Is 16 a high anion gap?

and a normal anion gap is approximately 10—16 mEq/L. An anion gap of 17 or higher represents an increased anion gap, and an anion gap of 9 or lower represents a decreased anion gap.

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